Alterations in the clinical appearance of the gingivae gums can be an indicator of both localized and systemic disease. The most common cause of erythema of the gingivae is poor dental hygiene, for example from retained dental plaque and calculus. Mucocutaneous diseases like, lichen planus, cicatricial pemphigoid, pemphigus vulgaris may affect the gingivae. Gingivae can be affected in hiv infection or may be subjected to bacterial essay infections. Few examples of gingival inflammation arenchronic marginal gingivitis and acute herpetic gingivostomatitis due to the simplex virus and Vincents gingivostomatitis. In lead exposure, a stippled blue line can often be observed running along the edge of the gum, Swollen, irregular in outline, red, spongy gums which bleed easily are found in scurvy. Gum hypertrophy is noticed in pregnancy and in patients treated for long periods with phenytoin. Hemorrhages may indicate blood disorders. Painful alveolar or dental abscess can cause localized swelling of the gum and of the face are sings associated with this condition.
It represents a benign hyperkeratosis secondary to irritation from the teeth cusps. The orifice of the parotid gland or the Stensen duct can be make found as a small punctate soft tissue mass on the buccal mucosa adjacent to first permanent molar teeth. Gentle palpation of the parotid gland results in the expression of serous saliva from the duct. Gums The gums are examined most easily with the mouth partially closed and the lips retracted with Gums adjacent to the crowns of the teeth and appears paler than other oral mucosa. This tissue usually is firm, stippled, and firmly attached to the underlying bone. The alveolar mucosa extends from the attached gingiva to the vestibule. In contrast to the attached gingivae, alveolar mucosa is not keratinized and is darker in color.
Oral cavity Examination, oral mucosa is described as being salmon-pink in color but variations do occur. Healthy labial mucosa appears smooth and glistening. Pinpoint mucosal secretions from the minor salivary glands may become apparent when mucosa is wiped. Labial mucosa is smooth, soft, and well lubricated by the minor salivary glands. Anxiety may result in dryness and in these cases the mucosa becomes tacky to the touch. Buccal mucosa cheek inner lining is examined by asking the patient partially open the mouth and stretching of the buccal mucosa with a mouth mirror or tongue blade. Fordyce granules are ectopic sebaceous glands present in the majority of patients and manifest as bilateral whitish-yellowish papules on the buccal mucosa or rarely on labial mucosa. Linea laba is a horizontal ridge on the buccal mucosa at the level of the interdigitation of the teeth.
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It usually present as a friends firm, rounded nodule sometimes with ulceration. It is more common on the upper lip and heals spontaneously without treatment. Pyogenic granuloma is a soft red raspberry like nodule on the upper lip following a minor trauma. The upper lip is the commonest site of an extragenital chancre, which appears as a small, round story lesion that is firm and indurated. Multiple small brown or black spot on the skin around the mouth which may extend on to the lips and buccal mucosa constitutes one the triad of cardinal features of the peutz-jeghers syndrome.
Mucosal surfaces of the lips are checked by everting the lips. Aphthous ulcers are small, superficial, painful ulcers with a white or yellow base and a narrow halo of hyperemia. Such ulcers are also seen on the tongue, buccal mucosa and palate and mucosal surface of lips. Retention cyst or mucocele are cysts of the mucous glands of the lips and buccal mucosa. These appear as round, elevated, translucent swelling with a characteristic white or bluish appearance.
" Cheilosis refers to fissuring and dry scaling of the vermilion surface of the lips and angles of the mouth. Riboflavin deficiency, irondeficiency anaemia, infections in children, and ill fitting or deficient dentures can result in Cheilosis. Recurrent scaly Cheilosis, painful inflammation and cracking of the corners of the mouth. " cheilitis with small blisters and exfoliation however, is a premalignant condition which may occur on prolonged exposure to the sun wind such as farmers and fishermen. Desquamation or inflammation of the lips is common in cold weather.
It is generally self-limiting condition. Grouped vesicles could be suggestive of herpes. Carcinoma lesion on the lips usually occurs on the lower lip away from midline. It appears a flat indolent ulcer. The lesion might have induration as well. Epithelioma is an abnormal growth of the epithelium. Keratoacanthoma is a lesion due to overgrowth of the stratum granulosum of the skin.
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The examination of make the you mouth and throat is conducted with the patient sitting up either in bed, with the head resting comfortable back on pillows, or in a chair. The lips, gums, tongue, palate, oropharynx and teeth are then examined. Moving from extraoral to oral examination, lips are examined first. Lips, look closely at the Philtrum div class Jig" div data-dobid"dfn" Vertical groove between the base of the nose and the border of the upper " philtrum for the any scar of a repaired cleft lip suggestive of cleft lip repair. If present, particularly if associated with nasal speech, inspect the palate carefully for signs of a cleft palate. Observe the corners of the mouth for cracks or fissures. Painful inflammation and cracking of the corners of the mouth.
Oral cavity proper is bound by floor of the mouth inferiorly, the oropharynx posteriorly, and the palate superiorly. The oropharynx begins superiorly at the junction between the hard palate and the soft palate, and inferiorly behind the circumvallate papillae of the tongue. The bony base of the oral cavity is formed by the maxillary and mandibular bones. Extraoral song Examination, oral examination should always begin with extraoral head and neck examination. The presence of neck lymph node masses can be seen in patients with oral infections or advanced malignancies. The anterior cervical lymph node chain is most commonly affected but other regional lymph nodes may be enlarged as well. Salivary gland neoplasm such as parotid neoplasms, submandibular masses can be best felt by extra oral palpation. Temporomandibular joint may be examined by placing the tips of the little fingers in the external auditory canals and having the patient open and close the mouth and move the mandible laterally from side to side. Presence of crepitation, clicking, and popping of the temporomandibular joints should be looked for.
common causes of problems in the oral cavity. Allergies to various substances and adverse effects of medicine can also affect oral cavity. Adequate lighting is very important in oral examination and hand-held flashlights or a penlight, are sufficient for the purpose. Relevant Anatomy of Oral cavity, the oral cavity is oval shaped and is separated into the oral vestibule and the oral cavity proper. The oral vestibule is bounded externally by the lips and the cheek mucosa and internally by the alveolar processes and the teeth. Basically, vestibule is the space outer to teeth line. And oral cavity proper is inside the teeth line. It is the region where tongue is present.
However, there is relatively little research that addresses if individuals can hear a qualitative difference in recordings made with best practices versus those that have not. Design/methodology/approach In all, 53 individuals participated in the study, where they listened to three sets of oral histories and had to decide which was the archival-quality recording versus the cd-quality recording and mark their answer on a survey. Findings Students could discern less than half of the time on average which was the archival quality versus the cd-quality recording. Further, after listening to the differences, they most often indicated the difference was a little bit important. Practical implications This research does not suggest that archivists abandon dissertation well-established sound digitization practices that produce results that audio archivists (and those able to hear fine-grain audio differences) find superior. Rather, it does imply that additional work may be needed to train listeners to discern these fine-grain differences, and appreciate the highest-fidelity replication of original audio recordings. Originality/value this research addresses a gap in the literature by connecting audio digitization practices to its impact on listener perception.
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I thought I would share a new research article that got published today. I have a pre-print available if you dont have access to that journal. Digitizing oral history: can you hear the difference? Asbtract, purpose the purpose of this study is to answer the questions: Can students discern the difference between oral histories digitized at archival quality (96 khz/24-bit) versus cd-quality (44.1 khz/16-bit)? And How important do they believe this difference is? Digitization of analog audio recordings has become the recommended best practice in preserving and making mba available oral histories. Additionally, well-accepted standards in performing this work are available.