This is a common approach in the real estate industry. Income approach The income approach seeks to determine a companys value by using its expected profit over time and then placing a value on that essays future stream of income in todays terms. Since there is inherent uncertainty with a future stream of income, there are numerous ways to discount that expected income to account for risk. Completing the equation Now you have all the pieces to complete the equation. You have the amount of money you need by looking at cumulative cash flow. You also have an idea of how much money your company will be worth. Equation to determine how much equity you should offer: Equity to offer company valuation / Money needed If raising debt, you are not exchanging equity for cash. Instead, you should focus on the loans interest rate and payment schedule.
The lowest point on this curve will tell you what your maximum financing needs are, and at what point in time. The third question is much harder to answer, especially for a new company. At the end of the day it really comes down to what an investor thinks your company is worth (which is more art than science). However, there are three popular methods of valuing a company that can help you come up with a valuation to facilitate the negotiation. Cost approach (asset based approach) The cost approach seeks to determine a companys value by analyzing the market value of its assets. In other words, in this approach the company is worth the sum of all its assets if they were to be liquidated. This approach may homework be appropriate for some industries such as real estate where the asset value may actually be worth more than the going concern value (present value of future cash flows generated by the asset). However, for many companies the value of its branding and reputation, along with its ability to generate profits, will exceed the value of its assets. Market approach The market approach seeks to determine a companys value by analyzing recent sales of similar assets, with the theory that valuations of similar companies can serve as a good proxy.
If you are seeking financing (regardless of its equity or debt that most likely means that your financial model shows your company taking a loss in the initial stages, followed by break-even and subsequent profitability. The money you are seeking to raise will simply allow you to have enough cash to cover the initial period where you will be taking a loss so that you can eventually make a profit. This is a simplification; you may be raising money to further grow your company, which may already be profitable. Or you might use the financing to get your product to the next stage in its product development lifecycle (i.e.; milestone event). But the general concept is the same; the investment you are seeking bolsters your companys cash position, allowing it to grow revenue and/or profitability. Cool idea, how do you make money with it? How much money do you need, and why and when? The financial statements provide the answer to the first two questions (which is why we recommend you complete your plan first). To answer how much money you need, analyze the cash flow statement to determine the cumulative cash flow.
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As your business evolves, so will the members of your Advisory board. Feel free to shake up the line up over time. Required Funds In this section you evernote will tell the reader how much money you need to raise, what you are going to use it for, and how you got to the requested amount. Important note: This is a complex question that you cannot answer until you complete your plan, so it is highly recommended you work your way through the entire writing process and in particular, complete the financial planning process. Only then will you be able to identify the amount of money you will need to raise There are two primary financing options: equity and debt. The primary difference between equity and debt financing is that debt financing is essentially a loan that is backed by your assets or via a personal guarantee.
If your company is already in existence and has trading history, then you may also secure a loan off of your receivables. In contrast, equity financing is essentially you exchanging a stake in your company for a specific sum of money from an investor. Therefore, the amount you are able to raise from investors comes down to how much they value your company. There are three fundamental assessment questions every savvy investor will ask you: cool idea, how do you make money with it? How much money do you need, and why and when? What do you think your company is worth?
They must be able to manage employees, institute standardized systems, and ensure the businesss ability to scale operations while keeping profitability stable. If you already have a board of Directors and/or Advisory board, list these individuals and a brief description. What is a board of Directors? In a publically trading company the board of Directors is elected by the shareholders and is the highest authority in the management of the company. For our purposes (context of a private company that is most likely a startup or small but growing business a board of Directors is comprised of investor(s founder(s ceo and independent board member(s) who have substantial business and industry experience. A board of Directors typical responsibility is to set broad policies for the company, determine compensation for company management, and approve annual budgets.
What is an Advisory board? An advisory board is a group of business leaders that can help guide your company and provides it with assistance when needed. Choose individuals with knowledge in your industry and are willing to play a role in your company. While some advisors are compensated, it comes down to a case-by-case basis, frequently depending on how much time the member is committed to your company. Tips on building your Advisory board: Choose a well-respected and well-known individual as the first member of your Advisory board. This will help you to recruit other members of the board. Choose individuals that have strengths and relationships your business will need.
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You must demonstrate your teams ability to execute on the stated goals. To accomplish this, you should highlight: Background of each member dissertation of the management team (education, relevant work experience, etc.). Roles and responsibilities within the company. Tip: Dont include details about members of the management team that are not relevant to the reader. Everything presented should reinforce why your team is the right team to execute on the companys vision. Note: For established businesses If you have an established business the information you want to present is the same. Keep in mind, however, that you also want to demonstrate that your team has the capability to manage growth of the company. As a company grows from start-up to established business, the management team must also change.
Limited liability companies (LLCs a popular choice among many small businesses, a llc limits the members personal liability and only taxes profits at the individual level (acts as a pass-through entity). If you have not yet incorporated. Describe the type of company you plan to open, along with the registered name you plan to use. Explain your rationale for example, if you are starting a company where you plan on seeking venture capital financing, then you will want to start a c-corporation as majority of VCs will insist on this legal structure. If you have a home office/no dedicated business address. Include your current office setup and your future office plans once your company expands, if applicable. Management team, for start-ups, and especially those seeking financing, the management essay team section is especially critical. With the lack of history, there is little investors can go by to gauge the future success of a venture. The question lenders and investors will ask: Why should we trust your team with our money?
a partnership have unlimited liability for the companys debts and liabilities. Limited liability partnerships (LLPs lLPs are different from traditional partnerships in that there are two classes of partners: (1) General partners that have full management and control but also full personal liability and (2) Limited partners that have no personal liability beyond their investment. Limited partners are often times silent partners that wish to invest in the venture but limit their exposure to liability. A corporation is a separate legal entity owned by shareholders. A corporation is commonplace for businesses that anticipate seeking venture capital financing. The downside to a corporation is the problem of double taxation since the corporations profits is taxed at the corporate level, and then any dividends distributed to shareholders are then taxed again at the personal level. S-corporations, you can elect a special tax status with the irs to have your corporation not be taxed at the corporate level (instead, it would be taxed as a pass-through entity). Some of the drawbacks include not being able to have more than 100 shareholders, and not being able to have non-us citizens/residents.
A brief primer on company types. The optimal company type is best determined by a credible Attorney. The primer below is meant only to explain the broad differences between the most common company types. Sole Proprietorship, a sole proprietorship, according to the irs: A sole proprietor is someone who owns an unincorporated business by him or herself. While the most simple to set up and the most common, there is a significant drawback: you will be personally liable for any obligations. So for example, if you sell someone a cupcake and they sue you because they found a hair in it, and you lose in court, the creditors can legally go after your personal possessions such as the roof over your head. Partnerships, a partnership, according to the irs: A partnership is the relationship existing between two or more persons who join to carry on a trade or business. Each person william contributes money, property, labor or skill, and expects to share in the profits and losses of the company.
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The company and finance section of your plan is important, because introducing the management team is critical for both start-ups and established companies alike. Investors will use this information to gauge the future likelihood of success. Company and Financing Sections, company overview, management team. Required Funds (optional exit Strategy (optional mission Statement (optional). Company history (optional location and Facilities (optional). Company overview, there are review many variations and approaches on how to lay out the various components of a business plan. Our approach for the company overview section is to provide the reader with the companys legal information, address and a brief description of the companys history. Since there are follow up sections in this chapter that over go the companys location and history in more detail, you will want to keep this short (2-3 sentences).