The main mission of the merchants who came here from different parts of the world in different times was besides bringing their best commodities the constant desire for knowledge, for exchange of new revolutionary ideas, the exchange of cultures, traditions, religions and languages. Says Armida nazaryan, guide. Amongst those new ideas was the art of paper-making, from China. The secret technique travelled to samarkand and local craftsmen way developed it further. The famous silk-paper made from mulberry bark, was then exported worldwide. Zarif Muhtarov made his dream come true when he revived this lost art of paper-making. He still uses the traditional 1,000 year old technique in his workshop with its wooden watermill: people recognized paper from Samarkand by its unique sound. The paper is renowned for its exquisite quality and called silk-paper because of its smooth, shiny surface. Many 9th and 10th century Arabic and Persian manuscripts were written.
After crushing with wooden sticks, the pulp is placed into the water, filtered and dried in a form of internet sheets in the sun. Then mukrakash (master polisher) puts the sheets on a marble slab and carefully polishing them with sea shell, seeking that smoothness and silkiness that glorified Samarkand masters of papermaking. Photos: view all photos » copyright central Asia travel. No part of this publication may be reproduced without written permission of the copyright owner. Produced by katharina kaun 19/10 12:39 cet, camel caravans once stopped in Samarkand on their way from China to europe. In the first edition of Uzbekistan Life we trace the legacy of the legendary silk road and explore how it still influences the city today. Samarkand was in a perfect position on the network of roads which once weaved along 10,000 kms. For two thousand years thousands of merchants, diplomats, pilgrims, warriors and others passed though this city, leaving their foot prints behind them.
Paper was made of cotton, silk and bark of the mulberry tree. The bark of mulberry tree was the main secret of Samarkand paper and made it an important export product and historical site of ancient Samarkand. Growing practically throughout all territory, a mulberry tree provided paper with silkiness and light brown tint. Unfortunately, paper production in Samarkand was killed as well as it appeared - because of the war. To be exact, because of the internecine wars between. Bukhara and, samarkand, that caused the weakening of the region, with following invasion of djungars who brought devastation. Many secrets of the paper production were lost at that time, but thanks to the efforts of the modern masters ancient paper manufacturing was fully restored in the second half of the xx century. Ten kilometers from the center of the modern Samarkand there was opened a workshop of paper manufacturing, and it uses the same technology and raw materials as thousand years ago. Here is how the ancient Samarkand masters did: From the onset of the first frost master cuts thin twigs of the mulberry tree, removes the upper layer of bark and separates a soft porous layer of cambium, then which is dried and boiled forming.
Travel guide to, samarkand
Samarkand survived countless number of invasions that brought not only grief and devastation. Quite often, they were one of the most effective ways of cultural and technological exchange. Chinese troops invaded the territory of, central Asia, the glory of Samarkand papermakers was born and began its victorious march. The ruler of Samarkand, Abu muslim, won a battle against the foreigners, and captured more than twenty thousand Chinese. Among the prisoners there were many representatives of artisans who had to reveal their secrets to the enemy. That was the beginning of manufacturing writing paper in Samarkand.
Already in the ix century, the production of paper became one of the most important directions of handicraft in the region. But Samarkand masters not only continued production of paper, copying China technology, but also made a lot of changes both in the production process and in the components of the raw material, constantly improving product quality. The main types developed by them were: Samarkand shoyikogozi - light yellow, the finest and smooth paper; Samarkand Sultonkogozi, reminding Samarkand shoyikogozi, but it had a white color; Nimkanop - paper of brown color and. Mir-Ibrahimi with watermarks in the form of a ring. Having existed until the middle of the xix summary century, samarkand papermaking gained wide popularity both in Arab countries and in Europe. With its unique smoothness, samarkand paper was very comfortable for writing, and good density did not allow absorbing a lot of ink, that was a very important quality characteristic of the paper at that time. Moreover, some types of, samarkand paper were more comfortable for reading, thanks to the fact that the brownish tint of paper softened the contrast with ink.
The examples of modern Samarkand paper are claimed in tourist industry of the country. Texts of menu, original souvenirs-boxes with rolls of Samarkand paper, different oriental masks, for example girls with small pigtails or smiling boys in national caps all this is made in the workshop of Zarif mukhtarov konigil-Meros. Art and techniques of Samarkand paper is becoming perfect every year. Diplomas and awards got in the international exhibitions, which were held in kazakhstan, holland and other countries are evident. Hearty welcome to one of the most beautiful country in the world, nepal.
Nepal is a small country sandwiched between the two giant Asian countries India and China. We invite you to savor the natural beauty of Nepal and enjoy an adventurous trip with. We are operating, nepal trekking peak climbing, sightseeing tours, cultural tours and home stay tour in remote village. We also arrange hotel reservation and air tickets. So come and enjoy an exciting and unforgettable holiday in the himalayas! Near Samarkand there is an operating paper mill, where craftsmen make by hand famous. Samarkand paper on ancient technologies. For many centuries, samarkand has been famous for its artisans.
Workshop Places to visit in, samarkand
For thousands of years the oliver masters from Samarkand developed the technologies of different kinds of paper producing: Samarkand sulton kogozi (Sultan sort). Paper was white, thin and soft. Samarkand shoyi kogozi (silk). Paper was also very smooth, thin, but had a light best yellow color. Mir-ibragim had watermarks in white ring. And for producing Nimkanop sort (half hemp) the wastes of silk were mixed with bast fibres. The color turned out brown. Now Uzbek miniaturists have an opportunity to create their masterpieces on paper, that was used by medieval authors. The products from the workshop from the village konigil is also used in Japan while restoration of ancient manuscripts and in rarity publications.
After this they are pulverized in the organizations mortar using the wooden pestle, which operates with the help of water from the aryk. The resulting intermediate product is filled with water, scoop up a screen in the form of a rectangular sheet of paper. At that time, as the water flows down, the pulp is shaken to mix the fibers. Wet leaves are placed under pressure, a day it is spread on smooth vertical surfaces, smoothing brush. Dried sheets have porous surfaces. To give the smoothness they are polished with shells. The natural color of Samarkand paper is light brown. For giving colors natural ink is used: juice of shokhtut - deep blue, juice of usma - green, onion peel - orange, indigo - blue, madder root - red, etc. Masters can decorate with the pressed flower petals.
in Central Asia, but in Middle east and Europe spain, France, germany. The majority of Persian and Arabic manuscripts of the ix-x centuries were made on exactly samarkand paper. The technology of Samarkand paper producing is the following. The cuttings of two years branches of mulberry are soaked into water. The rind is peeled bast fibres are removed. Then the fibres are dried for the usage in winter or are put into the kettles. They are boiled in the kettles for 24 hours.
From this time, beginning from the viii century, paper was produced in Samarkand, and at the beginning of the ix century the production of writing paper considered the important branch of workmanship. During Amir Temurs government the production of paper continued to be one of the main branches of workmanship. It is known that in latest time, at the beginning of the xviii century, in Samarkand and its environs there were 42 workshops on dissertation paper producing. They were opened in kokand, bukhara and Tashkent. Cotton, silk and a rind of mulberry tree were used as basic material. Today the famous in the past Samarkand paper is produced on old formulas in a special built paper workshop in the village konigil near Samarkand (at. From the center of Samarkand). The production mechanisms, as in the past, are operated with the help of the water wheel, using waters of the river siab. Here, as many centuries ago, one can see the whole process of the famous Samarkand paper production on the ancient renewed technology.
Samarkand - kalpak travel
Today, in the writing 21 century, it is difficult to imagine the modern activity of humanity without paper. In spite of ultramodern it-technologies, paper remains the main medium. The famous historical fact is that paper was born in China. China held the monopoly for many centuries, keeping the secrets of its production. But the history points at the fact that paper was also produced in other countries. In July, 751 on the river Taraz (Talas) the Chinese army invaded to the territory of Central Asia. But the ruler of Samarkand Abu muslim directed his army against foreigners and captured twenty thousand of the Chinese. Among the Chinese soldiers there were many origins from craftsman families, including those who produced paper. Evidently, saving their lives they exposed all secrets of the technology to the local craftsmen.