He gives to whom he wills female, and he gives to whom he wills males. Or he makes them both males and females, and he renders whom he wills barren. Indeed, he knows and Competent (Khaleelsarwar, 2013)." The author claims that Islam protects the rights of all people created by Allah and transgender among them. Such liberal spirit of the muslim article can be supported by different news about legislative initiatives concerning a new right for transgender individuals. However, in fact, transgender people have very little rights and such claims as the article represents the express position of only a small group of Muslim tree intellectuals who are in the minority, while the majority is represented by rigid fundamentalists who do not want any. Government does not protect transgender people in Indonesia. In Indonesia, transgender people always face different dangers such as persecutions not only from particular groups of fundamentalists: police and courts do not protect transgender people from these threats and the state only pretends that all of its citizens are equal under the law.
From the religious point of view, it is blasphemy because Allah has created every part of the world in the best way, so when someone wants to change his/her sex, it can be understood by muslims as a result of human will's controversy with Allah's. There is a well-known reference to biblical Sodom and Gomorrah, which shows an example of the god's approval of hostility against "the people of Lot" used either in Christianity or in Islam (because Islam and Christianity are both Abrahamic religions). These two examples are quite enough to explain what degree of hostility transgender personalities have always met in the muslim society: firstly, they break the world order established by Allah; secondly, there is proof that Allah once destroyed their cities by the rain of fire. None true believer wants to contradict the will of the god and, since Islam teaches to be obedient to Allah and ruthless to his enemies, every true islamic fundamentalist has to persecute and oppress his/her transgender neighbors and fellow citizens. Such relationships between heterosexuals and transgender people in a muslim country is the base for different approaches to this issue, which appear because of many factors adding many new features to the traditional Islam. For example, the tendencies of liberalization of the muslim teaching in most Islamic states change the traditional face of Islam. Modern Muslim thinkers try to justify transgender people within the framework of Qur'an. For example, the article concerning transgender in Islam placed on the muslim site m divides all people into three groups: men, women, and makhannathun (transgender) - those who were created by Allah to combine the qualities both of men and women. These thoughts are followed by a" from Qur'an: "to allah belongs the dominion of heavens and earth; he creates what he wills.
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Their way to free life without discrimination is much more complicated in a society where the leading religion marks them as sinners, blasphemers and uses the power of state oppression and public persecution against transgender people. When culture is based on some rules, which can not be changed due to the status of divine revelation, people cannot think critically as they understand everything through the prism, which has been given to them by their religion. It has determined their socialization, everyday life, and even afterlife. Such society is closed because it is established on traditions, which form a completed system where there is no place for something different because one of the main principles of religion is that nothing can contradict its principles. That is why, those who live in a closed society are suspicious of everything, which can contradict their traditional system of values. Transgender Issue in Indonesia, as it has been mentioned, Indonesia is a muslim country, so there are some details concerning relations between religion and the legal system in Muslim states, which must be underlined.
Muslim legislation is performed in accordance with Qur'an and Sunnah (Islamic paper religious law known as Sharia is the base of all legislative processes in Muslim states). That is why, in such states, human's deed can be recognized as the crime not only if it has caused some damage of other people's interests, but also when such a deed is counted as sin in the system of values of the muslim culture. Islam is well-known as one of the most rigid religious systems in the world due to its severe restrictions. One of the best examples of its rigidness is the tradition of "lesser jihad which is a muslim version of evangelization and proselytizing activity connected with its violent character. When the culture is based on intolerant relation to representatives of other religious systems, it seems that the muslims must be much more intolerant to transgender personalities who are "others" twice for heterosexual Muslims: both on biological (since they are not in the majority, transgender. In other words, transgender people in a muslim state may be considered as in a double trap: their need of self-identification makes them change their bodies, which contradicts their self-perception.
Transgendered people are those who "believe that their gender identity differs from the traditional notions of maleness and femaleness and/or that this identity does not correspond with their biological sex" (Keith, 2011,. The transgender issue in a country can be represented by two sides of its realization in the society: what kind of life transgendered persons may have there, firstly, on institutional and, secondly, on the individual level (Keith, 2011,. Since the main goal of the paper is to compare transgender issue in Indonesia and in a developed country (the usa the research must be based on the distinction between those countries and determining of major distinctions of approaches to transgender individuals on both levels. Indonesia is a muslim country, while the usa is a secular one. The leading religion in a state is a very important factor, which has huge influence either on the entire state or on every particular member of its society, even on those who are not religious people because such group of people always represents the minority.
This group is influenced by religion passively or, in other words, it consists of those who suffer from the wrath of the religious majority. Being based on faith and indisputable character, religion is the most important code of rules in a society of "true believers". This can not be said about a secular state where rites and dogmas do not determine necessarily institutional and individual levels of public relations. Transgender people are minority in every society. Transgender people who are always represented by the minority (Keith, 2011,. 237) have many problems with self-identification, self-esteem, social self-realization even in secular societies because they are already "others" in relation to heterosexuals.
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