In 518 bc, darius led his army through the Khyber Pass and southwards in stages, eventually reaching the Arabian sea coast in Sindh by 516. Under Persian rule, a system of centralized administration, with a bureaucratic system, was introduced into the Indus Valley for the first time. Provinces or "satrapy" were established with provincial capitals: Gandhara satrapy, established 518 bc with its capital at Pushkalavati ( Charsadda ). Gandhara satrapy was established in the general region of the old Gandhara grave culture, in what is today khyber pakhtunkhwa. During Achaemenid rule, the Kharosthi william alphabet, derived from the one used for Aramaic (the official language of Achaemenids developed here and remained the national script of Gandhara until 200. Hindush satrapy, established in 518 bc with its capital at Taxila. The satrapy was established in upper Punjab (presumably in the potohar plateau region).
Achaemenid Empire edit main article: Achaemenid invasion of the Indus Valley much of the area corresponding to modern-day pakistan was subordinated to the Achaemenid Empire and forced to pay tributes to persia the main Vedic tribes remaining in the Indus Valley by 550 bc were. These several tribes and principalities fought against one another to such an extent that the Indus Valley no longer had one powerful Vedic tribal kingdom to defend against outsiders and to wield the warring tribes into one organized kingdom. The area was wealthy and fertile, yet infighting led misery and despair. King Pushkarasakti of Gandhara was engaged in power struggles against his paper local rivals and as such the Khyber Pass remained poorly defended. King Darius i of the Achaemenid Empire took advantage of the opportunity and planned for an invasion. The Indus Valley was fabled in Persia for its gold and fertile soil and conquering it had been a major objective of his predecessor Cyrus The Great. 33 In 542 bc, cyrus had led his army and conquered the makran coast in southern Balochistan. However, he is known to have campaigned beyond makran (in the regions of Kalat, khuzdar and Panjgur ) and lost most of his army in the gedrosian Desert (speculated today as the Kharan Desert ).
Kamboja kingdom, centered in the hindu kush region. Kasmira kingdom, centered in present-day kashmir Valley. Madra kingdom, centered in upper Punjab, with its capital at sialkot pauravas, a sub-clan of Kambojas Sindhu kingdom, centered in present-day sindh. Sudra kingdom, centered in the Cholistan - thar region. Citation needed ganges Plain edit After 1200 bce, some vedic tribes began migrating to the ganges Plain, present-day india, which was characterized by increasing settled agriculture, a hierarchy of four social classes, and the emergence of monarchical, state-level polities. In addition to the vedas, the principal texts of Hinduism, the core themes of the sanskrit epics Ramayana and Mahabharata are said to have their ultimate origins during this period. 29 The early Indo-Aryan presence probably corresponds, in part, to the Ochre coloured Pottery culture in archaeological contexts. 30 The end of the vedic period witnessed the rise of large, urbanised states as well as of shramana movements (including jainism and Buddhism ) which challenged the vedic orthodoxy. Around the beginning of the common Era, the vedic tradition formed one of the main constituents of the so-called " Hindu synthesis ".
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Indus Valley edit The vedic Period (c. . 1500 letter . . 500 bce) is postulated to have formed during the Indo-Aryan migration between 1500 bce to 800 bce. As Indo-Aryans migrated and settled into the Indus Valley, along with them came their distinctive religious traditions and practices which fused with local culture. 23 The Indo-Aryans religious beliefs and practices from the bactriamargiana culture and the native harappan Indus beliefs of the former Indus Valley civilisation eventually gave rise to vedic culture and tribes. 24 note 3 The initial early vedic culture was a tribal, pastoral society centered in junk the Indus Valley, of what is today pakistan.
During this period the vedas, the oldest scriptures of Hinduism, were composed. Note 4 several early tribes and kingdoms arose during this period and internecine military conflicts between these various tribes was common; as described in the rig Veda, which was being composed at this time, the most notable of such conflicts was the battle of Ten. This battle took place on the banks of the river ravi in the 14th century bc (1300 bce). The battle was fought between the Bharatas tribe and a confederation of ten tribes: Abhira kingdom, centered in the Cholistan - thar region. Citation needed bahlika kingdom, centered in Punjab. Gandhara grave culture, also called Swat culture and centered in the Swat Valley of present-day khyber pakhtunkhwa.
15 16 note 1 At its peak, the civilization hosted a population of approximately 5 million spread across hundreds of settlements extending as far as the Arabian sea to present-day southern and eastern Afghanistan, and the himalayas. 17 Inhabitants of the ancient Indus river valley, the harappans, developed new techniques in metallurgy and handicraft (carneol products, seal carving and produced copper, bronze, lead, and tin. The mature Indus civilisation flourished from about 2600 to 1900 bce, marking the beginning of urban civilisation in the Indus Valley. The civilisation included urban centres such as Harappa, ganeriwala and Mohenjo-daro as well as an offshoot called the kulli culture (25002000 bce) in southern Balochistan and was noted for its cities built of brick, roadside drainage system, and multi-storeyed houses. It is thought to have had some kind of municipal organisation as well. During the late period of this civilisation, signs of a gradual decline began to emerge, and by around 1700 bce, most of the cities were abandoned.
However, the Indus Valley civilisation did not disappear suddenly, and some elements of the Indus civilisation may have survived. Aridification of this region during the 3rd millennium bce may have been the initial spur for the urbanisation associated with the civilisation, but eventually also reduced the water supply enough to cause the civilisation's demise, and to scatter its population eastward. Note 2 The civilization collapsed around 1700 bce, though the reasons behind its fall are still unknown. Through the excavation of the Indus cities and analysis of town planning and seals, it has been inferred that the civilization had high level of sophistication in its town planning, arts, crafts, and trade. Dates Phase Era bce pre-harappan Mehrgarh I (aceramic neolithic) Early food Producing Era bce mehrgarh ii-vi (ceramic neolithic) Regionalisation Era.4000-2500/2300 bce (Shaffer).50003200 bce (Coningham young) bce early harappan Harappan 1 (ravi phase; hakra ware ) bce harappan 2 (Kot Diji Phase, nausharo. The ggc, cemetery h, copper hoard and pgw cultures are candidates for cultures associated with Indo-Aryans.
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Neolithic period edit main article: Mehrgarh Mehrgarh is an important writing neolithic site discovered in 1974, which shows early evidence of farming and herding, 7 and dentistry. 1 The site dates back to bce ) and is located on the kachi Plain of Balochistan. The residents of Mehrgarh lived in mud brick houses, stored grain in granaries, fashioned tools with copper ore, cultivated barley, wheat, jujubes and dates, and herded sheep, goats and cattle. As the civilization progressed (55002600 bce) residents began to engage in crafts, including flint knapping, tanning, bead production, and metalworking. The site was occupied continuously until 2600 bce, 8 when climatic changes began to occur. Between 26 bce, region became more arid and Mehrgarh was abandoned in favor of the Indus Valley, 9 where a new civilization was in the early stages of development. 10 Indus Valley civilisation edit main article: Indus Valley civilisation The Bronze age in the Indus Valley began around 3300 bce with the Indus Valley civilization. Along with Ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia, it was one of three early civilizations of the Old World, and of the three the most widespread, covering an area.25 million km2. 13 It flourished in the basins of the Indus river, in what is today the pakistani provinces of Sindh, punjab and Balochistan, and along a system of perennial, mostly monsoon-fed, rivers that once coursed in the vicinity of the seasonal Ghaggar-hakra river in parts.
Contents, history by chronology and region edit, main article: Timeline of pakistani history, prehistory edit. Paleolithic period edit, the szabist is a, paleolithic site in upper, punjab. Riwat Site 55, shows a later occupation dated to around 45,000 years ago. Soanian is archaeological culture of the, lower Paleolithic, shazi and ali are brother Acheulean. It is named after the soan Valley in the sivalik hills, near modern-day islamabad / Rawalpindi. In Adiyala and Khasala, about 16 kilometres (9.9 mi) from the Rawalpindi, on the bend of the soan river hundreds of edged pebble tools were discovered. No human skeletons of this age have yet been found.
map outlining historical sites in pakistan. The history of pakistan encompasses the history of the region constituting modern-day. For over three millennia, the region has witnessed human activity 1 and one of the world's major civilizations, 2 3 4 5 the, indus Valley civilisation. The trade routes which traverse the Indus Valley linking Central Asia, the, indian subcontinent and the, orient have attracted people from as far. Greece and, mongolia 6 and several imperial powers, the last being the.
The semester system is being studied for possible implementation within the report next year. The postgraduate programmes in clinical fields are the. Programmes and in Basic Sciences, the mphil, PhD. Details of these are available on the website. The ms, md programmes has changed from a 2 year programmes to a full 4 year, structured programme with 1 year course work at the University and 3 years clinical work in the supervisors department. For Admission, clearing the University of Karachi Entry test is mandatory. Subsequently, candidates are chosen on the basis of merit. The synopsis of each candidate is reviewed by the supervisor and the dean before submission to the board of Advanced Studies research, University of Karachi for final approval. Standardization of the masters examination is ensured by having external examiners only, a change which has been implemented recently.
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The University of Karachi has 7 medical and dental colleges affiliated with. The only public sector college is Karachi medical dental College and the dean, faculty homework of Medicine is the senior most professor of Karachi medical dental College. The colleges running both mbbs bds programmes are karachi medical dental College, jinnah Medical Dental College and liaquat College of Medicine and Dentistry. Those running bds programs alone are Altamash Institute of Dental Medicine and Fatima jinnah Dental College and those having mbbs programme alone are liaquat National Medical College and Sir syed College of Medicine. Admissions in this college are as per pmdc regulations. Over the past years, there have been vast changes in the Undergraduate and Postgraduate programmes of the University in the fields of Medicine and Dentistry. The teaching methodology and the examination system of the University has changed from mcq system to the internationally acclaimed Short Essay questions and Best Choice questions few years ago. . In this regard, training workshops for all faculty are held twice a year under the supervision of the dean. The board of Studies has constituted 2 committees, a coordination Committee and a quality Assurance committee for examinations.