There is also one neutral vowel, /i not belonging to either group. All the vowels in a non compound word, including all its suffixes, must belong to the same group. If the first vowel is atr, then every vowel of the word must be either /i/ or a atr twist vowel. Likewise, if the first vowel is a atr vowel, then every vowel of the word must be either /i/ or a atr vowel. In the case of suffixes, which must change their vowels to conform to different words, two patterns predominate. Some suffixes contain an archiphoneme /A/ that can be realized as /a, ɔ, e, o/. For example: orx household -ar (instrumental) orxor by a household xarʊɮ sentry -ar (instrumental) xarʊɮar by a sentry Other suffixes can occur in /U/ being realized as /ʊ, u in which case all atr vowels lead to /ʊ/ and all atr vowels lead to /u/. For example: aw to take -uɮ (causative) awʊɮ if the only vowel in the word stem is /i the suffixes will use the atr suffix forms. Mongolian also has rounding harmony, which does not apply to close vowels.
However, some scholars still describe mongolian as being characterized by a distinction between front vowels and back vowels, and the front vowel spellings 'ö' and 'ü' are still often used in the west to indicate two vowels which were historically front. The mongolian vowel system also has rounding harmony. Length is phonemic for vowels, and each of the seven phonemes occurs gpa short or long. Phonetically, short /o/ has become centralized to the central vowel. In the following table, the seven vowel phonemes, with their length variants, are arranged and described phonetically. Khalkha also has four diphthongs : /ui, ʊi, ɔi, ai/. Mongolian divides vowels into three groups in a system of vowel harmony : atr front atr back neutral e, u, o a, ʊ, ɔ i as mentioned, for historical reasons these have traditionally been labeled as "front" vowels and "back" vowels. Indeed, in Romanized transcription of Mongolian, the vowels /o/ and /u/ are often conventionally rendered as ö and ü, while the vowels /ɔ/ and /ʊ/ are expressed as o and u (this is also the case in the nonphonological sections of this article). However, for modern Mongolian phonology, it seems more appropriate to instead characterize the two vowel-harmony groups by the dimension of tongue root position.
30 Besides Mongolian, or "Central Mongolic other languages in the mongolic grouping include dagur, spoken in eastern Inner Mongolia, heilongjiang, and in the vicinity of Tacheng in Xinjiang ; the Shirongolic subgroup Shira yugur, bonan, dongxiang, monguor, and Kangjia, spoken in Qinghai and Gansu regions;. 31 As for the classification of the mongolic family relative to other languages, the Altaic theory (which is increasingly less well received among linguists 32 ) proposes that the mongolic family is a member of a larger, now discredited Altaic family that would also include. Phonology edit The following description is based primarily on the Khalkha dialect as spoken in Ulaanbaatar, mongolia's capital. The phonologies of other varieties such as Ordos, Khorchin, and even Chakhar, differ considerably. 33 Problems playing this file? This section discusses the phonology of Khalkha mongolian with subsections on Vowels, consonants, Phonotactics and Stress. Vowels edit The standard language has seven monophthong vowel phonemes. They are aligned into three vowel harmony groups by a parameter called atr ( advanced tongue root the groups are atr, atr, and neutral. This alignment seems to have superseded an alignment according to oral backness.
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17 There is no disagreement that the Khalkha dialect of the mongolian state is Mongolian. 18 beyond this one point, however, agreement ends. For example, the influential classification of Sanžeev (1953) proposed a "Mongolian language" consisting of just the three dialects Khalkha, chakhar, and Ordos, with Buryat and Oirat judged to be independent languages. 19 On the other hand, luvsanvandan (1959) proposed a much broader "Mongolian language" consisting of a central dialect (Khalkha, chakhar, Ordos an Eastern dialect (Kharchin, Khorchin a western dialect (Oirat, kalmyk and a northern dialect (consisting of two buryat varieties). 20 Some western scholars 21 propose that the relatively well researched Ordos variety is an independent language due to its conservative syllable structure and phoneme inventory. While the placement of a variety like alasha, 22 which is under the cultural influence of Inner Mongolia but historically tied to oirat, and of other border varieties like darkhad would very likely remain problematic in any classification, 23 the central problem remains the question.
24 The split beautiful of tʃ into tʃ before *i and ts before all other reconstructed vowels, which is found in Mongolia but not in Inner Mongolia, is often cited as a fundamental distinction, 25 for example Proto-mongolic *tʃil, khalkha /tʃiɮ chakhar /tʃil/ 'year' versus Proto-mongolic. 26 On the other hand, the split between the past tense verbal suffixes - sŋ in the central varieties. dʒɛ in the eastern varieties 27 is usually seen as a merely stochastic difference. 28 In Inner Mongolia, official language policy divides the mongolian language into three dialects: southern Mongolian, oirat, and Barghu-buryat. Southern Mongolian is said to consist of Chakhar, Ordos, baarin, khorchin, Kharchin, and Alasha. The authorities have synthesized a literary standard for Mongolian in whose grammar is said to be based on southern Mongolian and whose pronunciation is based on the Chakhar dialect as spoken in the Plain Blue banner. 29 dialectologically, however, western southern Mongolian dialects are closer to Khalkha than they are to eastern southern Mongolian dialects: for example, chakhar is closer to Khalkha than to Khorchin.
Mongolian literature is well attested in written form from the 13th century but has earlier Mongolic precursors in the literature of the Khitan and other xianbei peoples. The Inscription of hüis Tolgoi dated to 630 ce is currently the oldest substantial Mongolic or Para-mongolic text discovered. Contents geographic distribution edit mongolian is the official national language of Mongolia, where it is spoken (but not written) by nearly.6 million people (2014 estimate 6 and the official provincial language (both spoken and written forms) of Inner Mongolia, china, where there are. 7 Across the whole of China, the language is spoken by roughly half of the country's.8 million ethnic Mongols (2005 estimate) 6 However, the exact number of Mongolian speakers in China is unknown, as there is no data available on the language proficiency. The use of Mongolian in Inner Mongolia, has witnessed periods of decline and revival over the last few hundred years. The language experienced a decline during the late qing period, a revival between 19, a second decline between 19, a second revival between 19, and a third decline between 198 However, in spite of the decline of the mongolian language in some of Inner Mongolia's.
9 The multilingual situation in Inner Mongolia does not appear to obstruct efforts by ethnic Mongols to preserve their language. 10 11 Although an unknown number of Mongols in China, such as the tumets, may have completely or partially lost the ability to speak their language, they are still registered as ethnic Mongols and continue to identify themselves as ethnic Mongols. 6 12 The children of inter-ethnic Mongol-Chinese marriages also claim to be and are registered as ethnic Mongols. 13 Classification and dialects edit mongolian belongs to the mongolic languages. The delimitation of the mongolian language within Mongolic is a much disputed theoretical problem, one whose resolution is impeded by the fact that existing data for the major varieties is not easily arrangeable according to a common set of linguistic criteria. Such data might account for the historical development of the mongolian dialect continuum, as well as for its sociolinguistic qualities. Though phonological and lexical studies are comparatively well developed, 14 the basis has yet to be laid for a comparative morphosyntactic study, for example between such highly diverse varieties as Khalkha and Khorchin. 15 16 The status of certain varieties in the mongolic group—whether they are languages distinct from Mongolian or just dialects of it—is disputed. There are at least three such varieties: Oirat (including the kalmyk variety ) and Buryat, both of which are spoken in Russia, mongolia, and China; and Ordos, spoken around Inner Mongolia's Ordos City.
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While there is a basic word order, subjectobjectpredicate, ordering among noun phrases is relatively free, so grammatical writing roles are indicated by a system of about eight grammatical cases. There are five voices. Verbs are marked for voice, aspect, tense, and epistemic modality / evidentiality. In sentence linking, a special role is played by converbs. Modern Mongolian evolved from Middle mongol, the language spoken in the mongol Empire of the 13th and 14th centuries. In the transition, a major shift in the vowel-harmony paradigm occurred, long vowels developed, the case system changed slightly, and the verbal system was restructured. Mongolian is related to the extinct Khitan language. It was believed that Mongolian is related to turkic, tungusic, korean and Japonic languages but this view is now seen as obsolete. These languages have been grouped under the now discredited Altaic language family and contrasted with the mainland southeast Asia linguistic area.
Mongolia and many of the, mongolian residents of the, inner Mongolia autonomous Region. In Mongolia, the, khalkha dialect, written in, cyrillic (and at times. Latin for social networking is predominant, while in Inner Mongolia, the language is dialectally more diverse and is written in the traditional. In the discussion of grammar to follow, the variety of Mongolian treated is Standard Khalkha mongolian (i.e., the standard written language as formalized in the writing conventions and in the school grammar but much of what is to be said is also valid for vernacular. Some classify several other Mongolic languages like. Buryat and, oirat as dialects of Mongolian, but this classification is not in line with the current international standard. Mongolian has vowel harmony and a complex resume syllabic structure for a mongolic language that allows clusters of up to three consonants syllable-finally. It is a typical agglutinative language that relies on suffix chains in the verbal and nominal domains.
only expected to present raw data, they should be analysed and presented in overview for this purpose. You may therefor need to describe very briefly how you collected your raw data and how you processed and analyzed these. Data may be displayed in the form of tables or figures where it enables you and the reader to make sense of it, but in a lot of qualitative research it is merely the explanation in words that constitutes the results. Learn about how to write the discussion, conclusion, references, appendices and layout sections in the following. Not to be confused with, mongol language (New guinea). The, mongolian language (in. Mongolia and both the most widely-spoken and best-known member of the. The number of speakers across all its dialects may.2 million, including the vast majority of the residents.
You may want to include or mention definitions with references for terms and phrases, and if your thesis has any limitations due to lack of resources, time, practical issues etc., which means that you will be intentionally leaving anything out. Your introduction also has another purpose: It should capture the readers interest, so they will want to read he rest of your thesis. Therefor you may also think interms of presenting why it is important and why your research is worth tackling. What can be won? And optionally also personalize by mentioning what is your professional motivation for the thesis. Methods, this section describes the method oliver or methods you have used to answer the question(s) raised in your problem formulation. Your information concerning methods should both allow the reader to assess the validity of your results and (particularly for quantitative research) ultimately make it possible for another researcher to get the same results by completing the same work as you.
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Introduction, your introduction presents the justification for the project and includes much of the same content as you addressed in your synopsis (Getting started, lesson 4). The section starts to present an overview of the knowledge you have obtained from the extensive literature the search you have performed during your study. It summarizes the evidence you have found as well as gaps in the knowledge, all put into context of your project. Based on this you present your problem formulation and/or hypothesis and your specific objectives to the reader. The logic is that your introduction will show that you have performed a research worthy project. You explain how your work is an original contribution to the most relevant previous finding in the area. Based on your literature search you explain how your work differs from the existing and how far you hope to advance knowledge in the field. You can also say that is a verbal road map that describe where you want to go (objective which difference your work will make (hypothesis) and to whom. In this way you make a contract with your reader on what they will experience along the road and what to expect at the end of your guided tour.