Alex rider snakehead summary

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The fry are collected as ordered and as such some orders may take several days to complete. Most of the farmers stock their ponds using fry of more than 10 days of age and about 1 2 cm in size. Very few farmers stock their ponds with fingerling size as such, since there are no specialist fingerling producers. There is some artificial spawning. Striatus carried out by the dof personnel in research institutions around the country. The brood stock were provided with as near natural conditions as possible.

The bottom mud and detritus are dug up and the bottom is then lined with sand. The pond is then left to dry for fifteen days. Water is then run in and left standing for three days, after which is drained off. The pond is now ready for stocking. Figure 1 : Example layouts of snakehead farms in Thailand. The supply of seed fry is available throughout the year but the peak availability is during the wet season from may to september/ modi October. The planning strategy used by farmers in order to maximise their profits requires them to harvest their crop around April/May. Thus the peak in demand for fry stocking is in the months of July/August. All of the farms obtain their fry for stocking from specialist fry collectors. These collectors, using their knowledge of the natural spawning grounds, collect wild fry using simple netting procedures.

alex rider snakehead summary

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Only one farm had ponds where there was no water exchange, this farm had larger ponds, than the usual. Normally ponds ranged from 800 1,600 square metres (0.5.0 rai but in this case they were two rai in area. The smaller size ponds are favoured by the farmers as the culture operation is very intensive and the smaller size facilitates easier management and feeding operations and especially, facilitates harvesting. The depth of the ponds is usually between.5 2 metres. The different types of system and farm layout is presented good in Figure. In between two successive crops an interval of two - three months is used to repair and prepare the ponds for stocking. Ponds are drained dry at the last day of harvest.

alex rider snakehead summary

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Striatus, and have allocated a few ponds for. Snakehead is also cultured by small family concerns owning one to three ponds. The operations of the smaller farms are restricted by the very high save capital requirement largely due to the high feed costs. Capital for each crop is often obtained through loans from fish wholesalers and the loan is repaid after harvest. By this means, wholesalers maintain control over most of the smaller scale farms and fix the price of purchase during harvest. Generally the farms have a similar type of layout. Most obtain water by pumping from a khlong (canal) or a ditch, more or less continuously; some farms pump water for twenty four hours a day, others for up to ten hours a day. Some of the farms pump the water directly into ponds while others pump water from the khlong into a ditch and make use of a gravity flow system to all the other ponds.

However, interest is now moving towards. Striatus for various reasons. The main reason is that of the difficulties now facing Clarias farmers owing to disease, husbandry and management problems; recent overproduction also resulted in depressed prices rendering Clarias culture less profitable than previously. Consequently, some of the Clarias farmers have converted to snakehead farming which has expanded considerably in the last five years. All four of the farms visited during the present study were only three to four years old. Striatus is cultured in monoculture systems. There are very few farms that utilise. Striatus in polyculture systems. Snakehead is cultured by people with access to capital who normally farm other species such as Pangasius catfish, Clarias catfish and Chinese carps but realising the potential.

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alex rider snakehead summary

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The main idea is to utilise and recycle the animal wastes. The chicken coops are built over the pigs pens in the nearly one km2 feedlot so that the chicken droppings supllement the pig feed. The pig manure is collected and used to raise pangasius catfish which receive no other feed input. Even dead pigs are recycled since they are cooked using biogas generated from pig manure and then fed to Clarias catfish. Snakehead have long been regarded as a valuable food fish by the Asian people. In Thailand it is one of the most common staple food fishes. In the past most of the supply of snakehead came from capture fisheries.

In recent years, however, declines in the harvests of wild snakehead, due to overfishing and the destruction of spawning areas with pollution from industrialisation, along with the suitability of the fish for culture by virtue of its business air breathing characteristic and hardiness, have created keen. There are several species of snakehead belonging to the genus Channa in Thailand, but only one species is cultivated, the species Channa striatus ( Ophicephalus striatus ). Until a few years ago, clarias catfish (. Macrocephalus ) was preferred. Striatus for culture because of the shorter raising period - six months for Clarias catfish as opposed to seven to nine months for. The longer raising period means a higher capital out-put as the feed cost can be as high as 70 or more of the total operating cost.

Consequently exact data on the present events of the smaller scale fisheries are limited. The present position statement, given below, is based on the estimates projected from records recently completed on 197576 data and adjusted by the opinion of dof 3 personnel who have daily contacts with aquaculture (Plodprasop Suraswadi, 1980). These estimates indicate that more than 20 species (including Macrobrachium. ) are being cultivated in freshwater, yielding an annual production of 47,850 metric tonnes of which 95 is contributed by 10 species. The value of this production, based on farm gate prices, was around US43.5 million/year. There are some 20,000 ponds with a total area of 6,000 ha, about 51,000 paddy fish farms with an area of 35,000 ha and an undetermined number of small back yard ponds.


There are also some 450 ditch culture operations and 600 cage culture operations. Aquaculture in Thailand is very diverse. As indicated above, there are about 20 species of fish being reared. Fish are cultivated in converted paddy fields, dammed-up ditches, swampy areas and in cages and there are numerous types of systems that are in use. These systems vary from the very intensive farms with precise controls on the input stock, feed and water and harvest, which are operated by big business concerns for commercial production, to extensive systems where brood stock are introduced into a defined area of water and. In between these two extremes, can be found farms where the feed is supplemented totally and some farms where the feed is partly supplemented and partly provided through production of food organisms in the water through fertilisation. Generally, most of the fish farms are run on monoculture lines, although there are polyculture systems and some where wild fish are introduced and harvested together with the cultured species. Some farms are integrated with the production of other crops such as livestock, pigs and poultry. Edwards (1980 reported a very large integrated farm utilising several thousand chickens, ducks, pigs and one million fish.

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It is, however, only in the last few years that it has undergone rapid advancement. The improve principal reasons for the increased interest and development of fish farming are due to the recent advances in the development of culture techniques in the world particularly in the field of husbandry and management of culture systems and the development of standardised artificial breeding. Also important are the efforts of the Thai government in promoting and aiding the aquaculture programmes. Farmers are now presented with alternatives of turning their rice fields and waste-land, such as swamps and ditches, into fish ponds. Fishermen and trawlermen, unemployed as a result of the overfishing of the stocks in the gulf of Thailand, are encouraged to turn to aquaculture as a means of reducing unemployment and as part of the national development programme. The rapid growth and the expansion of the fish farming industry has severely taxed the ability of the department of Fisheries to maintain an account of all fish farming activities. This is not helped by the fact that most small scale fisheries do not keep any form of record of their operations.

alex rider snakehead summary

Preparation of writing ponds. Seed fish supply. References list of Figures:. Example layouts of snakehead farms in Thailand. Incidences of mortality in the 1980 production cycle of a channa striatus crop, Thailand List of Tables:. Market prices of Channa striatus in 1980. Marketing margin of the sale of Channa striatus based on primary data. Primary data on the culture of snakehead in four farms, Thailand snakehead ( Channa striatus ) farming in thailand 1 kok leong wee 2 Aquaculture has been practised in Thailand for many years.

presents the results of a study undertaken in Thailand during 22 February to The objective was to survey snake-head farming practices in the country. Due to logistical constraints, however, it was only possible to concentrate on four snakehead farms. My report is thus a general description of snakehead farming based on primary data obtained from the four farms close to bangkok and on other information obtained from reports and discussion with Thai fisheries workers. Kok leong wee institute of Aquaculture, stirling, Scotland Hyperlinks to non-fao internet sites do not imply any official endorsement of or responsibility for the opinions, ideas, data or products presented at these locations, or guarantee the validity of the information provided. The sole purpose of links to non-fao sites is to indicate further information available on related topics. This electronic document has been scanned using optical character recognition (OCR) software. Fao declines all responsibility for any discrepancies that may exist between the present document and its original printed version.

Clraias culture, the system of relaying problems from the farms to dof and of transferring improved technologies, and the equipment and facility base of dof for working on aquaculture problems. Although the undp/fao participation was structured terminate in August 1981, dof committed continuation of the project to at least August 1982. This report is one of several Working Papers prepared on various aspects essay of the project. A list of titles of reports completed in the series is annexed. Inquiries concerning the subject matter of any particular report should be directed to the author, c/o, the director, national Inland Fisheries Institute, kasetsart University campus. Bangkhen, bangkok 9, thailand, the Programme for the development of Pond Management Techniques and Disease control (dof - undp/fao tha/75/012) centered its initial activities. All the while, it was understood that developments of the project (facilities, specialist training, research, etc.) would have application in assisting other culture systems. Followup phases were thereby envisioned in which the problems of other culture systems would be dealt with from a base position of facilities, staff and approaches established to confront.

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Snakehead (Channa striatus) farming in Thailand. Tha/75/012/WP 18, snakehead channa striatus ) farming in thailand, contents. Kok leong homework wee, institute of Aquaculture, university of Stirling. Scotland, consultant to the, programme for the development of Pond Management Techniques and Disease control (dof - undp/fao tha/75/012). Thailand, national Inland Fisheries Institute, bangkok, thailand 1981, the Programme for the development of Pond Management Techniques and Disease control (THA/75/012) was implemented in Thailand during 197982 as a joint project by the department of Fisheries (DoF) and undp/FAO. The purpose of the project was to improve dof support services for. Clarias farming through strengthening: the skills of Fisheries staff in aquaculture disciplines such as disease diagnosis and treatment, pond management and extension, the research on solutions for problematical aspects.


alex rider snakehead summary
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